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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, SUBPART N,
SECTION 1910.178, POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS

(l) Operator Training.

    (1) Safe Operation.
      • The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial
        truck operator is competent to operate a powered
        industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful
        completion of the training and evaluation specified in this
        paragraph (1).
      • Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered
        industrial truck (except for training purposes), the
        employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully
        completed the training required by this paragraph (1),
        except as permitted by paragraph (1)(5).

(2) Training program implementation.

    • Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:
      • Under the direct supervision of persons who have
        the knowledge, training, and experience to train
        operators and evaluate their competence; and

      • Where such operation does not endanger the
        trainee or other employees.
    • Training shall consist of a combination of formal
      instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer
      learning, video tape, written material), practical training
      (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical
      exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the
      operator's performance in the workplace.
    • All operator training and evaluation shall be conducted
      by persons who have the knowledge, training, and
      experience to train powered industrial truck operators and
      evaluate their competence.

(3) Training program content. Powered industrial truck
operators shall receive initial training in the following topics,
except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not
applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer's
workplace.

    • (i) Truck-related topics:
      • A. Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions
        for the types of truck the operator will be
        authorized to operate;
      • B. Differences between the truck and the automobile;
      • C. Truck controls and instrumentation: where they
        are located, what they do, and how they work;
      • D. Engine or motor operation;
      • E. Steering and maneuvering;
      • F. Visibility (including restrictions due to loading);
      • G. Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use
        limitations;
      • H. Vehicle capacity;
      • I. Vehicle stability;
      • J. Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the
        operator will be required to perform;
      • K. Refueling and/or charging and recharging of
        batteries;
      • L. Operating limitations;
      • M. Any other operating instructions, warnings, or
        precautions listed in the operator's manual for the
        types of vehicle that the employee is being trained
        to operate.
    • (ii) Workplace-related topics:

      • A. Surface conditions where the vehicle will be
        operated;
      • B. Composition of loads to be carried and load
        stability;
      • C. Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking;
      • D. Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be
        operated;
      • E. Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the
        vehicle will be operated;
      • F. Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle
        will be operated;
      • G. Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect
        the vehicle's stability;
      • H. Closed environments and other areas where
        insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle
        maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon
        monoxide or diesel exhaust;
      • I. Other unique or potentially hazardous
        environmental conditions in the workplace that
        could affect safe operation.
    • (iii) The requirements of this section:

(4) Refresher training and evaluation.

      • (i) Refresher training, including an evaluation of the
        effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted as
        required by paragraph (1)(4)(ii) to ensure that the
        operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate
        the powered industrial truck safely.
      • (ii) Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to
        the operator when:
        • (A) The operator has been observed to operate the
          vehicle in an unsafe manner;
        • (B) The operator has been involved in an accident or
          near-miss incident;
        • (C) The operator has received an evaluation that
          reveals that the operator is not operating the truck
          safely;
        • (D) The operator is assigned to drive a different type of
          truck; or
        • (E) A condition in the workplace changes in a manner
          that could affect safe operation of the truck.
      • (iii) An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's
        performance shall be conducted at least once every three
        years.



(5) Avoidance of duplicative training. If an operator has
previously received training in a topic specified in
paragraph (1)(3) of this section, and such training is appropriate
to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional
training in that topic is not required if the operator has been
evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely.

(6) Certification. The employer shall certify that each operator
has been trained and evaluated as required by this
paragraph (1). The certification shall include the name of the
operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation,
and the identity of the person(s) performing the training or
evaluation.

(7) Dates. The employer shall ensure that operators of powered
industrial trucks are trained, as appropriate, by the dates shown
in the following table:



If the employee was hired:   The initial training and
evaluation of that employee
must be completed:




Before December 1, 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By December 1, 1999.

After December 1, 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Before the employee is assigned
to operate a powered industrial truck.